Archive for the ‘20 century Church History’ Category

Holy Spirit person and work

April 17, 2010
  • WHO IS THE HOLY SPIRIT? 1 John 5:7 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. Genesis 1:2 Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. Romans 8:9 You, however, are controlled not by the sinful nature but by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you. And if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ.
  • WHAT IS HIS WORK? John 15:26
    “When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me. John 16:13 But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. Acts 1:8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.” John 16:7-8 7But I tell you the truth: It is for your good that I am going away. Unless I go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. 8When he comes, he will convict the world of guilt[a] in regard to sin and righteousness and judgment: 1 Corinthians 12:13 For we were all baptized by one Spirit into one body Hebrews 2:4 God also testified to it by signs, wonders and various miracles, and gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.

Romans 8:11 And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit, who lives in you. Acts 13:52 And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit. Romans 15:13 May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace as you trust in him, so that you may overflow with hope by the power of the Holy Spirit. Acts 4:31 After they prayed, the place where they were meeting was shaken. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and spoke the word of God boldly. 2 Thessalonians 2:13 But we ought always to thank God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth.

  • HOW IS THE HOLY SPIRIT GIVEN AT SALVATION? John 20:22 And with that he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit

John14:1717Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.

 John 3:8 The wind blows wherever it pleases. You hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from or where it is going. So it is with everyone born of the Spirit.” 1 Corinthians 12:13
For we were all baptized by one Spirit into one body


baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. John 1:33 I would not have known him, except that the one who sent me to baptize with water told me, ‘The man on whom you see the Spirit come down and remain is he who will baptize with the Holy Spirit.’ Acts 1:5 For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.” Acts 11:16 Then I remembered what the Lord had said: ‘John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’John 7:37-39 37-39On the final and climactic day of the Feast, Jesus took his stand. He cried out, “If anyone thirsts, let him come to me and drink. Rivers of living water will brim and spill out of the depths of anyone who believes in me this way, just as the Scripture says.” (He said this in regard to the Spirit, whom those who believed in him were about to receive. The Spirit had not yet been given because Jesus had not yet been glorified.) Luke 11:11-13 11″Which of you fathers, if your son asks for[a] a fish, will give him a snake instead? 12Or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion? 13If you then, though you are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father in heaven give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!”

  • HOW IS IT DIFFERENT? Acts 2:38 Peter replied, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Acts 8:15-17  15When they arrived, they prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit, 16because the Holy Spirit had not yet come upon any of them; they had simply been baptized into[a] the name of the Lord Jesus. 17Then Peter and John placed their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit. Acts 19:6 When Paul placed his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came on them,
  • HOW IS TONGUES INVOLVED? Isaiah 28:11 For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people. 1 Corinthians 14:21 In the law it is written, With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people; Mark 16:17 And these signs shall follow them that believe; In my name shall they cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; Acts 2:4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. Romans 8:26 In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groans that words cannot express. 1 Corinthians 14:13-17 13-17So, when you pray in your private prayer language, don’t hoard the experience for yourself. Pray for the insight and ability to bring others into that intimacy. If I pray in tongues, my spirit prays but my mind lies fallow, and all that intelligence is wasted. So what’s the solution? The answer is simple enough. Do both. I should be spiritually free and expressive as I pray, but I should also be thoughtful and mindful as I pray. I should sing with my spirit, and sing with my mind. Ephesians 6:18
    And pray in the Spirit on all occasions with all kinds of prayers and requests. With this in mind, be alert and always keep on praying for all the saints. Acts 10:45-47 45And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost. 46For they heard them speak with tongues, and magnify God. Then answered Peter, 47Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we? Acts 19:1-6 1And it came to pass, that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts came to Ephesus: and finding certain disciples,  2He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost. 3And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John’s baptism. 4Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus. 5When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 6And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied. Acts 9:17 And Ananias went his way, and entered into the house; and putting his hands on him said, Brother Saul, the Lord, even Jesus, that appeared unto thee in the way as thou camest, hath sent me, that thou mightest receive thy sight, and be filled with the Holy Ghost.      1 Corinthians 14:18 I thank God that I speak in tongues more than all of you. Acts 11:15-1715″As I began to speak, the Holy Spirit came on them as he had come on us at the beginning. 16Then I remembered what the Lord had said: ‘John baptized with[a]water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’ 17So if God gave them the same gift as he gave us, who believed in the Lord Jesus Christ,









    8. YOU MUST RID YOUR LIFE OF THINGS NOT OF GOD e.g. Ojui boards, Taro card, astrology and horoscope material,talisman,occult materials,pramids,crystals,chimes,religious statues,non Christian religious symbols…GOD IS A JEALOUS GOD AND WILL NOT SHARE HIS HOUSE WITH SATAN

Third Wave Heresy

April 17, 2010

My Understanding

 Recently I have sent you four emails regarding several movements of the church in the last 100 years. Each has born much fruit. Each has introduced elements of the Holy Spirits work. Each has had it’s extremes, abuses and compromises. Each also has formed a pattern. Just read the books of judges and kings to see similar patterns of faith,compromise,rejection, judgement,repentence and restoration.

Here we go again.

This is how I see things.

Many of the mighty moves of God/revivals if you will began with a man hungry for more of God and a realization of the compromise in the current church system.







First comes the hunger, then the passion, then the Holy Spirit, Then the restoration of worship, doctrine and a need to return to “new testament Christianity just like the church in Ephesus in Revelations 2.

Next comes the fruit and growth. But sadly along with that comes the persecution from within. Compromises are made to appease the establishment both within and out side the movement. Leaders faults are exposed. Marginalize the faithful. Water down passionate and expressive praise and worship. Finally the movement wanes until God stirs it up in another servant. How many of these men let the fire die, no wonder Paul warns Timothy to continue fan the flames.

This is my questions on the whole third wave movement. Is it a compromise to:

  • Keep butts in the seats
  • Keep the money flowing
  • Keep the regards of so called scholars
  • Avoid counting the cost
  • Quiet controversies
  • Avoid offenses


Why is it that we cannot sustain a movement? Now I cannot judge any one man’s motives nor do I know the history of any one local church or their leadership. God

alone knows. I believe that the same Spirit that begins the movement will continue it.

2 Timothy 3:5
Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away.

The thirds wave rejects, marginalizes or ignores the power that comes through Holy Spirit baptism. Since some people never “got it” nor spoke in tongues, it had to be explained away. God forbid that it be a problem with the person, especially if they had some prominence so to “save face” with the unfilled, we let it go. Compromise, what an awful enemy of the truth.

Aw,but let’s not put all the blame on these folks. The pendulum does swing the other way. The charasmaniacs have contributed themselves. They often choose feeling and form over substance. They reject sound doctrine, theology or true religion as enemies of the moving of the Holy Spirit. So…instead they as easily swayed by every fad and exciting thing out there .They fail to recognize that certain things come with maturity and there is no shortcut to faith. Next thing you know, their excesses scare some and they throw the baby out with the bath water. Then when the excitement dies down or their presumptive faith fails them, they are easily scattered and stray.

Both extremes seem to gather around a human champion to their side instead of the Holy Word of God and His Holy Spirit.

What am I going to do?

Don’t go with the flow and don’t trust human wisdom.Go to the book.Go to the beginning. Go to God in prayer. Accept the hard work. Dance with the One Who brung us.

Philippians 1:6
being confident of this, that he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus.

Additional thoughts.

The third wave appears to me to not be an honest move of God but rather an attempt to mainstream the charasmatic movement.

First they expose the extremes.

Next they play pick and choose.

I’ll take modern praise and music,but we’ll just slow it down a little bit.

I’ll take raising and clapping hands but we’ll shelf that dance and shouting stuff.

We’ll take certain spiritual gifts,but that tongue stuff’s got to go or at least marginalized.

We” ll take house groups as long we we can control them.

We’ll exchange the free movement of the spirit for a controlled ” decently and in order” meeting.

We will become a one trick pony that is easily managed instead of speaking the hard truths.

And wha-lah. You have sucessfully neutered the plans of God to fit in your own little box. No one is offended and everybody’s happy.

Problem is Where’s God.

Third Wave “Theology”

April 17, 2010

Third Wave of the Holy Spirit

The expression Third Wave was coined by Christian C. Peter Wagner to describe what he believed to be three historical periods of the activity of the Holy Spirit in the 20th century and beyond.


Each wave identifies with a subtly different theology regarding their claims of encountering the Holy Spirit. Those associated with the First Wave will generally preach the “baptism with the Holy Spirit” as a separate and subsequent experience to conversion which must be accompanied by speaking in tongues in order to be genuine. Those associated with the Second Wave will still tend to speak of a second experience of the Spirit – a baptism or filling of the Spirit, although they will often more readily state that all Christians in some sense have the Spirit. They will also usually state that tongues “usually” accompanies this experience. Those associated with the third wave will tend to identify “baptism with the Spirit” with conversion, and not refer to a second experience of receiving the Spirit. They would prefer to emphasise the ongoing nature of the experience of the Spirit. Tongues may not be emphasised at all, and will usually not feature in public meetings. Some third wave leaders may not speak in tongues.

Scholars have preferred the classification neocharismatic to address this sector of Christianity, defining it as all those charismatic Christians who are neither Pentecostal nor part of the Charismatic Movement, which is further defined as the movement within historic denominations that believes that charismatic gifts are valid today. Neocharismatics are therefore all those Christians and churches which have arisen independently of mainline denominations and use spiritual gifts. Within this sector there will be those whose theology of the Spirit is aligned with the definition of “Third Wave” given above, but it will only be a subset.


The Third Wave is associated with Wagner’s own ministry, as well as the Vineyard Movement, and Eternal Grace. Many who identify with the New Apostolic Reformation and the Toronto blessing will also be “Third Wave.”

Azusa Street Revival

April 17, 2010

Azusa Street Revival

On April 9, 1906, at a prayer meeting in a modest home on Bonnie Brae Street in Los Angeles, a few men and women spoke in tongues. They had been meeting to pray for “an outpouring” of the Holy Spirit. The tongues speech convinced them that they had “broken through.”

News of the event spread rapidly among blacks, Latinos and whites, the prosperous and the poor, immigrants and natives. Those who yearned for revival, as well as the curious, thronged the house. The need for space prompted a move to an abandoned Methodist church on Azusa Street. For the next two years, waves of religious enthusiasm waxed and waned at Azusa Street, attracting visitors from across the nation and missionaries from around the globe. The faithful announced that this was a reenactment of the New Testament Day of Pentecost: “All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other languages as the Spirit gave them ability” (Acts 2:4). God was restoring New Testament experiences of the Holy Spirit — or, as devotees of the movement put it, restoring the apostolic faith.

At Azusa Street, one could see and hear the “utterance gifts” listed in 1 Corinthians 12:8-10. Seekers spent hours praying to be baptized with the Holy Spirit, an experience they expected would be attested by speaking in tongues. People interpreted tongues and prophesied — phenomena with which few Christians had any direct experience. The sick came for healing.

Why were such things happening on an out-of-the-way city street? The faithful had a simple answer: the end of the world loomed, and God was sending the Holy Spirit to equip his chosen people for one last burst of evangelism before it was too late. The baptism with the Holy Spirit was an end-times “enduement with power for service” that went hand in hand with personal holiness. The visible gifts of the Holy Spirit testified to the Spirit’s immediate presence in and among believers.

A century later, Pentecostal denominations boast over 10 million members in the U.S. If one adds those in other churches who embrace Pentecostal-like beliefs and practices, the number more than doubles. Estimates in 2005 of the worldwide number of Pentecostals suggest that there are over 580 million adherents, making Pentecostals the second largest group of Christians in the world, trailing only Roman Catholics. Even those who challenge these numbers agree that by any measure Pentecostal Christianity has experienced dramatic growth. Directly and indirectly, the Azusa Street revival influenced this expansion.

Azusa Street stands at the core of the Pentecostal myth of origins. In recent years scholars have stressed that global Pentecostalism has multiple origins, and that the Azusa Street revival was one of several impulses that birthed a distinctly Pentecostal form of Christianity. In some places the Welsh Revival of 1904-1905 played the role that Azusa Street filled in North America. The Korean revival of 1907, the Indian revivals reaching back into the 19th century and some indigenous African movements are watersheds in non-Western Pentecostal narratives. Yet, for a variety of reasons, Azusa Street has gained the most visibility, especially in Western renderings of Pentecostal history. And perhaps justifiably so: its immediate global impact, its widely circulated publications, and its networking role kept people aware of its message. Even if Azusa Street was not the only source of the global Pentecostal impulse. it had a vital role in shaping the contours of worldwide Pentecostalism.

What happened at Azusa Street? At the center of this “new thing” stood an African-American preacher named William Seymour. The son of slaves, Seymour had traveled to Los Angeles from Texas to share what he had learned from a self-made preacher named Charles Fox Parham.

During the 1890s, Parham had heard much talk about the baptism with the Holy Spirit, but he observed a lack of consensus on the evidence for this baptism. In 1901, Parham began to preach that the “Bible evidence” of the baptism with the Holy Spirit was speaking in tongues. He called his message the Apostolic Faith. In 1903, thanks to a healing and local revival in eastern Kansas, Parharm’s Apostolic Faith began attracting followers. By 1905 his work had reached the Houston area, where he met Seymour. Parham encouraged Seymour to accept an invitation to preach in Los Angeles.

The Azusa Street mission, then, had direct antecedents in Parham’s modest midwestern efforts. The core of Parham’s message prospered briefly in Seymour’s hands. For a few years, the Azusa Street mission became the best-known hub of a movement framed by premillennialist views, influenced by a Wesleyan fervor for holiness and committed to the practice of the spiritual gifts enumerated in 1 Corinthians 12. For a time at least, whites, blacks, Latinos and Native Americans mingled at the mission, though interracial acceptance was at best imperfect and soon broken.

In the fall of 1906, Seymour and an associate, a white woman named Clara Lum, began chronicling the revival in a periodical called Apostolic Faith. It quickly became evident that the Azusa Street revival resonated with widely scattered people in part because it seemed hauntingly familiar. Azusa Street gave them context for their own religious experiences and networked them with those who shared their radical evangelical instincts.

In time new denominations influenced by Azusa Street blended the distinctive Apostolic Faith focus on the experience of the Holy Spirit with traditional evangelical tenets. Before World War I, the Church of God in Christ, the Assemblies of God, the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), the Pentecostal Holiness Church and a host of smaller associations — English-speaking and immigrant — had woven the message associated with Azusa Street into a fabric of belief and practice. In the 1920s, Aimee Semple McPherson’s new International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was poised to reinvigorate Los Angeles Pentecostalisin. By then, internal disunity had prompted the formation of a cluster of Pentecostal denominations (Anglo, African American and Latino) that denied the Trinity — for example, the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, the forerunner of the United Pentecostal Church, and many Apostolic movements — while sharing the Apostolic Faith heritage. A host of more recent independent associations, charismatic fellowships and nondenominational megachurches also draw inspiration from versions of the Azusa Street narrative.

The Azusa Street revival had global reach through Apostolic Faith, the popular religious press, missionary correspondence and personal ambassadors who, emboldened by their religious experiences, traveled the globe to announce firsthand the revival’s urgent message of spiritual empowerment in the last days. In time, career missionaries supported by Pentecostal denominations planted the revival’s message in remote places around the globe.

The centrality of Azusa Street in the story of Pentecostalism is due in large part to the work of the revivals tireless promoter Frank Bartleman. A restless maverick driven from place to place by his determination to be part of whatever God was doing in the world, Bartleman singlehandedly turned the Azusa Street revival into a literary event of global magnitude by chronicling his impressions and assigning them meaning in a widely circulated book, How Pentecost Came to Los Angeles. In this 1925 publication, Bartleman made a case for the centrality of “old Azusa” for Pentecostal identity: “Wales was but intended as the cradle for this worldwide restoration of the power of God. India but the Nazareth where he was ‘brought up.”’ What really mattered was Azusa Street. American Pentecostals and many scholars have since often been content to take his word for it, glimpsing Azusa Street through Bartleman’s eyes instead of rigorously examining the revival’s extent and limits.

Azusa Street has had a profound place in collective Pentecostal memory. Its imaginative power shapes not only narrative but also practice and makes the historiography of Pentecostalism surprisingly contentious because adherents generally embrace a particular version of the revival’s story and often engage parts of its legacy rather the whole. The Apostolic Faith Mission no longer stands on Azusa Street, but a century after the mission opened its doors (and in some ways now more than ever) the Azusa Street revival in one way or another frames the identities of millions of Pentecostal Christians.

The History of the Charismatic Movement

April 17, 2010

The History of the Charismatic Movement

What began on a corner at the turn of the twentieth century is now barreling down Main Street. What was once known as the Pentecostal movement has now splintered into numerous diverse, yet overlapping movements: Pentecostal, Charismatic, Vineyard, Word-Faith, and Holy Laughter.

While the Charismatic Movement has taken on wings during the twentieth century, similar views and manifestations can be found on occasion throughout history:

“In ancient times the practice of speaking in unintelligible languages during religious ecstasy was not unknown. From eleventh-century B.C. Egypt come reports of ecstatic speech, and later in the Greek world the prophetess of Delphi and the Sibylline priestess spoke in unknown tongues. Amongst the Roman mystery religions, the Dionysian Cult was known for this practice.

“Several of the early church fathers mention glossolalia in the church. Irenaeus (d.c. 200) and Tertullian (d. 200) speak favorably of it, Chrysostom (d. 407) disapproved, and Augustine (d. 430) declared that the gift was only for New Testament times. The Montanist movement of the late second century included prophetesses, claims of new revelation, speaking in tongues, and an ascetical and legalistic outlook; the movement was declared heretical by the official church and speaking in tongues seems to have been rare in the church after this time.

“During the middle ages speaking in tongues were reported in monasteries of the Orthodox church. In the seventeenth century it seems to have been practiced in France amongst the Huguenots (Protestants) and the Jansenists (pietistic Catholics). In the nineteenth century glossolalia was practiced in America amongst the Shakers and Mormons, and in Scotland and London amongst the followers of Edward Irving, who saw this as the latter-rain outpouring of the Holy Spirit prior to the pre-millennial return of the Lord.” (Quote taken form Millard Erickson’s Christian Theology and Walter Elwell’s Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, s.v. “Montanists,” “Pentecostalism,” and “Tongues, Speaking in.”)

Two different things can come to mind when one hears the term “charismatic.” Some think of a group of people hungry for the Lord, walking in the power of the Spirit, spiritual in worship, aggressive in evangelism, and abounding in love. Others see individuals who are experience-oriented, imperialistic in outlook (only they have the full gospel), elitist in stance, uncontrolled in worship, and devoid of any real grasp of the Bible that goes beyond mere proof-texting. The Charismatic movement has grown rapidly and has become more diversified; therefore, it would be misleading to place all under an identical banner.

Nevertheless, the majority of professing Christians who are viewed as “charismatic,” i.e., Oral Roberts, Larry Lea, Earl Paulk, Dick Iverson, Kenneth Copeland, Kenneth Hagin, Bob Tilton, etc., are proclaiming today that the “charismatic movement” is over and God’s “new move” is underway. Bill Hammon, a revered “modern prophet” in the charismatic community, says:

“The ‘Joshua Generation’ is leading forth, and the priestly pastors are carrying the ark of God’s restorational presence across Jordan. The journey of the charismatic movement has fulfilled its purpose of bringing the church to its Jordan River. Now the cloud by day and the fire by night have been taken away, and the prophets and prophetic ministers have arisen to provide protection, direction and timing for the church’s moving. … The prophets, however, are seeing on the horizon of God’s purpose for His church, a restorational wave of such incomprehensibly gigantic proportions — like a thousand-foot tidal wave — that it staggers the imagination and faith of both those who have prophetically seen it and those who have heard of it. It will be greater than all previous restoration movements combined.”

This new restorational movement advocated by most current charismatics has generated a groundswell of charismatic leaders to open themselves up to “new spiritual revelations” and “deeper doctrinal truths.” The theological menu served in most charismatic churches today is filled with novel ideas, new doctrinal teachings, and unusual practices.

While there are some basic differences existing between new movements arising among charismatics, their overall theological outlook (e.g., the restoration of modern apostles and prophets) and eschatological direction is the same. The New Charismatics are proclaiming that a new supernatural move of God’s Spirit is sweeping the entire globe. This new move will be so revolutionary that the entire course of human history will soon be changed. But in order for this glorious dream to work, the majority of the Christian churches must unite in philosophy and purpose. Therefore, one of the goals of the New Charismatics is to make charismatics and non-charismatics (and non-Christians as well), “New Charismatics.” In other words, charismatics subscribing to new restoration ideas deeply desire that all believers will taste this “new move” of the Holy Spirit and unite with them in their efforts to supernaturally transform the world.

Most refer to this thriving new development expanding throughout the world as “restorationism” or “Latter-Rain restorationism.” They believe that history is moving toward a spiritual climax where God’s power will be poured out on the church like never before. Restoration promoters believe that this new move could be the Lord’s final move where the church will be endued with new power to Christianize the world before Jesus returns. In order for this dominion pursuit to be realized, the five-fold ministry expounded in Eph. 4:11 (apostle, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers) needs to be recognized by the Church at large and given room to exercise their supernatural gifts and God-ordained authority.

Some contemporary restoration movements that fall under the umbrella term “The New Charismatics” are: Kingdom Theology, popularized by the nebulous Bishop/prophet, Earl Paulk; the Word-Faith/Positive Confession Movement led by faith teachers like Kenneth Hagin and Kenneth Copeland; and the Third Wave or Signs and Wonders movement, popularized by controversial Vineyard pastor, John Wimber. These groups have a common bond that promotes God’s moving in a new supernatural way through signs and wonders, that the church must be restored to first century apostolic Christianity before Jesus returns, and that modern apostles and prophets will play a key role in this process. To understand new developments and teachings spreading through the charismatic world, it is necessary to go back in history to briefly examine some of the influential “higher life” movements of the twentieth century, beginning with Pentecostalism. Tracing the origins of these movements will give a better insight into how certain teachings originated and developed over the years and why certain charismatics doctrines are emphasized so strongly today.


The Azuza Street revival of 1906-13 was the launching pad for a worldwide Pentecostal renewal. The main feature of this Pentecostal outpouring was the “baptism with the Holy Spirit,” an experience subsequent to salvation, which is evidenced by speaking in other tongues. This was the crown jewel restored by what many called the “second Pentecost.” There were, however, spiritual flashes that preceded Azuza, which prepared the way for its inauguration. On January 1, 1901, in Topeka, Kansas, Agnes Ozman, a student at Charles Parham’s Bethel Bible School, spoke in tongues. Sometime later, Parham himself had the same experience and from then on preached that all believers who sought the tongues experience diligently would be recipients of the blessing. Most recognize Parham as the founder of the Pentecostal movement.

Parham, an avid holiness preacher, was nurtured in the culture of religious experience. In his search for something more, tongues became the celebrated encounter filling that void. In 1905, a zealous black holiness preacher by the name of William J. Seymour came under the tutelage of Parham in Alvin, Texas, a few miles south of Houston. It wasn’t long before Seymour received the tongues experience and took the Pentecostal message to Azuza Street in Los Angeles. While there were spiritual ignitings before the flame reached Azuza, it was there that the flame turned white hot and began to spread all over the world. After Parham and Seymour received tongues experiences, they began an ambitious effort to spread what they believed to be the restoration of a glorious apostolic doctrine: the baptism of the Holy Spirit with the evidence of speaking in tongues. Parham taught that Christ’s return would occur on the heels of a worldwide Latter-Rain revival in which the Holy Spirit would restore miraculous gifts generating a great end time harvest. This Latter-Rain expectation died out in the early-1920s as Pentecostalism adopted certain tenets of dispensationalism.

Nevertheless, Pentecostalism stands as a classic restoration movement spawning several new sister movements that view the church as returning to her New Testament glory. The classic restoration motif of Pentecostalism that allegedly brought a greater hunger for spiritual reality was the “baptism with the Holy Spirit” evidenced by speaking in tongues.


One of the notably significant, yet controversial, phenomena to powerfully emerge with Pentecostalism is the doctrine and ministry of divine healing. Since the latter half of the nineteenth century, the practice of healing existed in America. But energizing Pentecostalism nourished independent evangelists who brought a “new” emphasis to the healing arena that attracted a popular following. The significance of the deliverance (healing) revival, reaching its zenith between 1947 and 1958, lies in its uniqueness to popularize a concept of salvation that includes health and healing as an essential part of deliverance for the believer.

Pentecostal religion continued to span the globe through the 1930s, but by the mid-1940s, as the careers of many independent evangelists peaked, there was a “new” emphasis — the miraculous! “Spirit Baptism” was still preached, but it was no longer the focus of the revival meeting. The shared heartbeat of “every service was the miracle — the hypnotic moment when the Spirit moved to heal the sick and raise the dead.”

Pentecostal denominations, such as the Assemblies of God, did not favor the revival and viewed the deliverance evangelists as “independent extremists.” Pentecostal leaders were disgusted by the lack of integrity among the revivalists, who often made claims marked by absurd exaggeration. The display of alleged miracles had become so outlandish that revival meetings had turned into “personality cults.” Historian David Harrell quotes one Pentecostal leader who reported:

“The healing evangelists live in constant dialogue with angels and demons, the Holy Spirit and the spirits of diseases from the abyss; some experience electric currents through their hands when they pray with the sick, others have a halo around their heads when they are photographed, and others again have oil appearing on their hands when they pray.”

Many of today’s “televangelists” have adopted the melodramatic preaching styles of the deliverance revivalists of the mid-twentieth-century.


Three pioneers at the forefront of the Deliverance Revival were William Branham, Oral Roberts, and Gordon Lindsey. These men bore remarkably different personalities, but were unquestionably the fuel that kept the revival running. Branham ignited the revival, stirring crowds with apparent miracles and prophetic abilities. Roberts was the popularizer with his heart-tugging message that God is good and wills that His people prosper and be healed. He was the first to bring healing crusades inside the homes of millions who had never been exposed to the healing message by initiating a national weekly television program. Lindsey was the organizer, bringing cohesion with superb administrative skills.

Branham’s teachings profoundly influenced a new sect springing from the neo-Pentecostal deliverance revival known as the “New Order of the Latter-Rain.” Branham also shaped the thoughts and practices of many key Pentecostal figures.

The Latter-Rain movement was a loosely directed and enthusiastic union of cobelligerents united by their fierce opposition to mainline denominations. This meteoric movement created quite a stir among Pentecostal denominations, like the Assemblies of God, and boasted of being a fresh revival displacing the “apostatized” Pentecostals. While its impact was on a small scale, its effects were nevertheless felt world-wide, and it became one of the several catalysts for the Charismatic Movement of the 1960s, the Independent Charismatic Movement (Word-Faith/Positive Confession charismatics) of the 1970s and the New Charismatics surfacing in the 1980s and 1990s. In reaction to the spiritual dryness existing in Pentecostal circles, the “New Order of the Latter-Rain” viewed itself as a refreshing oasis returning to the “full gospel” of the first-century church.

The doctrinal system of the Latter-Rain included Pentecostalism’s baptism of the Spirit with the evidence of speaking in tongues and the New Pentecostal deliverance revivals miraculous healing thrust. But the fiery movement had its own distinctives as well. There were primarily seven new teachings that shaped the Latter-Rain:

Restorationism — This further development of restoration theology viewed God as progressively restoring truths to the church since the Reformation.

Fivefold Ministry — The teaching that God is restoring apostles and prophets to the church to function with the three other gifted offices: evangelists, pastors, and teachers (Eph. 4:11). Apostles and prophets provided direction with new revelations that would play a major role in paving the way for Christ’s second coming.

Laying on of the Hands — A ritual performed by modern apostles and prophets to impart the Holy Spirit and other spiritual blessings and gifts.

Prophecy — Views the practice of “personal prophecy” as being restored to the church. Prophecy would no longer be restricted to general words of exhortation, but would include personal detailed revelations for guidance and instruction.

Recovery of True Worship — The belief that God’s manifested presence is dependent upon a certain order of worship involving singing in tongues, clapping, shouting, singing prophecies, and a new order of praise dancing.

Immortalization of the Saints — The belief that those believers moving in the truth of Latter-Rain restoration, not necessarily all in the church, will attain an immortal state before Jesus returns.

Unity of the Faith — The doctrine that the church, usually perceived to be a band of overcomers in neo-Pentecostal ranks, will attain unity in the faith before Christ returns.


Most historians date the beginning of the charismatic movement as April 3, 1960. On this day, “Father” Dennis Bennett of St. Mark’s Episcopal parish in Van Nuys, California, announced to his congregation that he had received the fullness and power of the Holy Spirit, and how this accompanied “speaking in unknown tongues.” After receiving much opposition, Bennett resigned from his position at St. Mark’s and accepted an invitation to become vicar of St. Luke’s Episcopal Church in Seattle, Washington, which grew to be one of the strongest charismatic churches in the Northwest. For a decade, it was one of the major centers from which speaking in tongues would spread worldwide, especially in the mainline denominations.

The significance of the Charismatic Movement resides in the penetration of the Pentecostal tongues practice into mainline denominations. This created a new openness to the full range of spiritual gifts listed in I Corinthians 12:8-10 (wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, tongues, and interpretation of tongues) that had never been there before. Certainly not all mainline churches supported this new movement, but thousands of people inside mainline churches were experiencing “speaking in tongues” and other spiritual manifestations. This bred a strong conviction that all of the supernatural “sign gifts” (e.g. tongues, healing, miracles, and in some cases, prophecy) were for today.

Although charismatic outpourings continued to spread through mainline churches, many denominational leaders left traditional churches to start independent churches. Before long, these mushrooming churches came under the influence of Word-Faith/Positive Confession teaching propagated by independent charismatics, such as Hagin, Copeland, Charles Capps, and others. Their main emphasis was faith teaching, divine healing, and financial prosperity. Believers who consistently made a positive confession about their physical and spiritual situation and demonstrated great faith would receive abundant blessings from God.

The most militant movement to rise up alongside of the charismatic movement was the “Manifested Sons of God.” This aberration gleaned many of its doctrinal distinctives from the Latter-Rain Movement and thrived during the 1960s and 1970s. Following the teachings of William Branham, the Manifested Sons claimed that denominations were pagan organizations with a Babylonian foundation. Many who broke their denominational ties and joined the Manifest Sons of God believed they were entering the only arena where salvation was possible. The more militant Manifested Sons spiritualized the second coming by teaching that Jesus and His church would become one in nature and in essence. Being one with Christ would corporately result in a Body of “little Christ’s in the flesh” manifesting Jesus Christ on earth as His ongoing incarnation.

Another movement to rise up during the Charismatic Movement became known as the “Shepherding” or “discipleship” movement. This movement grew out of the Latter-Rain/Charismatic tradition and attained its greatest impetus during the mid-1970s. Shepherding arose out of a concern for effective discipleship and put great emphasis on the need for submission to spiritual leaders. Shepherdship is an oppressive system in which a person who often perceives himself as an immature Christian submits himself to the leading of an “elder.” The elders (shepherds) are appointed in much the same way as in other hierarchies, with one submitting to the next higher in a chain of command.

Total discipline is imposed on those who submit themselves to an elder. His leadership is total, even extending over the person’s family life. Failure to obey the shepherd can lead to disapproval, verbal condemnation, and ultimately being put out of the fellowship. The most significant aspect of the unbiblical shepherding system is that one person submits his will completely to another individual, the shepherd or elder.

The movement originated from the ministry of five teachers out of Ft. Lauderdale, Florida — Bob Mumford, Charles Simpson, Derek Prince, Don Basham, and Ern Baxter (a Branham disciple). By the late-1970s the Shepherding movement caused a deep split within charismatic circles because of the strict control many shepherds exercised over their members. By the mid-1980s, the term “shepherding” was dropped since the movement gained a bad reputation for its cultic authoritarian abuses. Nevertheless, the “shepherding” concept still thrives in various circles today (e.g., Promise Keepers) under labels such as “mentoring” and “covering” or “covenant relationships.”

In 1970, Basham along with Bible teachers Derek Prince, Bob Mumford, Ern Baxter and Charles Simpson were asked to take on the leadership of Holy Spirit Teaching Mission (HSTM) an interdenominational charismatic teaching organisation based in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. In 1972, HSTM changed its name to Christian Growth Ministries (CGM).[citation needed]

The four Bible teachers taught a controversial doctrine of so-called ‘spiritual covering’ that required individual Christians to be submitted and accountable to a leader. They became the leaders of the Shepherding Movement. Basham submitted himself to Derek Prince as his personal shepherd [4].

Together with Prince and Mumford, Basham established Good News Church in Fort Lauderdale, Florida in 1974 [6]. Basham later relocated with the CGM to Mobile, Alabama in 1982 when it adopted the name Integrity Communications [7].

Some Good Books on Tongues

Monday, August 27th, 2007

While doing some research on the history of speaking in tongues I came across some good books. A few are old favourites of mine, while others are reissues of classics and some more recent works. Check them out:

Basham wrote sixteen books and numerous articles for Christian magazines.

  • A Handbook on Holy Spirit Baptism

A handbook on tongues, interpretation and prophecy

History of the Jesus Movement

April 17, 2010

History of the Jesus Movement

By most accounts, the Jesus People Movement began in 1967 with the opening of a small storefront evangelical mission called the Living Room in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury district. Though other missionary type organizations had preceded them in the area, this was the first one run solely by street Christians.

Within a short time of these first stirrings a number of independent Christian communities sprang up all across North America. In Seattle, the Jesus People Army was born in response to a vision experienced by evangelist Linda Meissner, who had seen an “army of teenagers marching for Jesus.” On the Sunset Strip, evangelist Arthur Blessitt opened the His Place nightclub and coffeehouse as a 24 hour way station for youth. At the University of California at Berkeley, Dr. Jack Sparks and some other members of Campus Crusade decided to begin a countercultural outreach program called the Christian Liberation World Front (CWLF) directed towards reaching campus radicals.

The ensuing groundswell of activity spawned a number of other developments as well. Realizing the need to open their churches to the hippie generation, many conservative pastors recruited hippie liaisons to their ministerial staff. Both Chuck Smith of Calvary Chapel (in Santa Ana, California) with the recruitment of Lonnie Frisbee, and Lyle Steenis of Bethel Tabernacle (in Redondo Beach) with the recruitment of Breck Stevens found their churches radically transformed in the wake of their decisions.

In order to proclaim the message of the gospel, hippie Christians simply adopted existing forms of communication. Mirroring the development of underground newspapers such as the Berkeley Barb, in 1969 evangelist Duane Pederson began publishing the Hollywood Free Paper as an evangelistic tool. Jesus papers with names like Right On!, The Fish, Street Level, and Cornerstone became a fundamental component of each street Christian community.

Another development was Jesus Music, the controversial combination of rock music and the gospel as one of the most effective (and subsequently lasting) institutions of the revival. Artists and groups such as Ron Moore, Love Song, John Fischer, Larry Norman, Randy Matthews, Agape, and the All Saved Freak Band are just a few of the performers that felt the need to communicate spiritual truths through a popular medium. Christian coffeehouses and Jesus rock festivals emerged as the music gained momentum as a popular alternative to the mainstream industry. Contemporary Christian radio shows sprang up as did magazines devoted solely to monitoring the fledgling Jesus Music scene. While many conservative church-goers lamented that Jesus Music was a spiritual compromise, these pioneers maintained that they were combating the negative influence of mainstream rock music. In an attempt to develop an apologetic for their evangelistic efforts they echoed the sentiments of reformer Martin Luther when he asked “why should the devil have all the best tunes.”

Adding to the excitement of the era was the sense that the revival was a foreshadowing of the impending apocalypse. Hal Lindsey’s runaway best seller The Late Great Planet Earth hit upon a deep seated nerve in the public with his combination of biblical prophecy and news events. Lindsey based much of his writing on the premise that the re-establishment of Israel as a nation was a prominent signal that the “countdown to Armageddon” had begun. Coupled with this end times theology was a premillennial doctrine concerning the “rapture of the saints” which taught that prior to the rise of the Antichrist and final war believers would be “raptured” (or ‘caught up’) to escape a time of tribulation perceived as being foretold in the Book of Revelation. Jesus musician Larry Norman’s haunting song “I Wish We’d All Been Ready” touched on this theme:

Two men walking up a hill
One disappears
and one’s left standing still
I wish we’d all been ready

The revival also spawned a number of extremist groups such as the Children of God, The Alamo Foundation, and the Way International. Although at first accepted and welcomed as more militant and committed street Christian groups, as apologetic ministries such as the CWLF’s Spiritual Counterfeits Project rose to expose doctrinal deviations, these groups were branded as heretical.

Though the revival had progressed for four years, the mainstream media did not really focus on the story until 1971. Though Christianity Today and Christian Life had followed the story from its beginnings in the Haight Ashbury, it wasn’t until 1970 when articles about ‘street Christians’ and ‘Jesus freaks’ appeared in Time and Commonweal. The major breakthrough came in February 1971 when Look magazine printed a story that anyone had described it as anything more than a local California event. This article spawned a virtual cottage industry of press articles, denominational ruminations, television exposes, and films all detailing various facets of what was now being called a “movement.” Ocean baptismal services, exuberant prayer meetings, long-haired evangelists, and Jesus rock musicians were portrayed throughout national magazines like Time, Newsweek, Life, Rolling Stone, and U.S. News & World Report. In 1971 the Jesus People were the religious event of the year while ranking third in Time’s story of the year poll. Alongside the emergence of Black Panthers, hippies, Yippies, Diggers, student activists, Weathermen, and women’s liberationists, the ‘Jesus freak’ was certainly the most curious social phenomena of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s.

Although the media’s interest in the movement waned by the end of 1971, there was much evidence that the revival was still going strong. The Jesus People USA, an offshoot ministry of the original Seattle Jesus People Army, would soon find a home in Chicago ministering to street youth. In 1972 Campus Crusade organized Explo ’72 in the Cotton Bowl in Dallas, Texas where many of the movement’s top performers were invited to sing. In 1973 former Calvary Chapel pastor Kenn Gulliksen was just starting a string of Bible studies that would culminate in the Vineyard churches.

With Watergate and President Nixon’s promises to end the war in Vietnam dominating the front pages, the counterculture receded thus removing the mission field that the revival had targeted. Where previous efforts of evangelism had been as simple as playing a guitar on a street corner for a group of spiritually interested hippies, the cynicism born of societal fears towards “cults” and their “brainwashing” techniques made evangelism a less fruitful endeavor than it once had been. As the counterculture came to an end, Jesus People groups either disbanded, institutionalized as churches, or stubbornly clung to their countercultural roots. Though the Jesus People Movement had effectively ended by the mid-1970s, there were still a host of churches, parachurch organizations, apologetics ministries, converts, Jesus musicians, independent evangelists, and missionary workers that had been funneled into Protestant and Catholic denominations of all theological skews.

Though the Jesus People Movement remains relatively neglected by mainstream and religious historians, its influence throughout the church was influential. It is our hope that through your participation on this page that we can offer insightful analysis of this period with the knowledge that historical reflection is an important part of our Christian heritage.

People and faces of the Jesus Movement

Arthur Blessitt and His Place – The minister of the Sunset Strip and founder of the His Place nightclub, the psychedelic evangelist came to prominence in the late 1960s after preaching at a local strip club. Blessitt was responsible for Christianizing some of the counterculture’s sayings, including “turn on to Jesus,” and comparing salvation to an “eternal rush.” The local businessmen were successful in getting His place shut down in the summer of 1969 but Arthur chained himself the 12 foot cross in front of the building and fasted for 28 days,— until they got another building just down the Strip that was kept open for two more years. It was open even as Arthur carried the cross across America and felt called of God to go overseas in the summer of 1971. He has continued to do so until the present.

Lonnie Frisbee – After a short stint with the original street Christian community in San Francisco, Lonnie was recruited by Chuck Smith, then pastor of a fledgling congregation in Costa Mesa, California, to be one of his evangelical liaisons to the counterculture. Frisbee was successful in drawing many to come to Calvary Chapel. During his tenure (1968-1971) as unofficial youth pastor, the church grew from 200 to several thousand members. He was also involved in the Shepherding movement before coming into contact with John Wimber in 1980 where he was integral to the development of the “signs and wonders” theology. In 1993 Frisbee passed away resulting from AIDS. At his funeral he was best eulogized as a Samson figure.

Larry Norman – One of the most popular Jesus music performers, his 1969 release Upon This Rock contributed some of the most lasting anthems of the Jesus People Movement. Songs like “I Wish We’d All Been Ready,” with its theme of expectation for the second coming, and “Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music,” with its apologetic for using rock music as a tool of evangelism, did much to bolster Norman as the premier Jesus rock performer of the revival. His trilogy of albums (Only Visiting This Planet, So Long Ago the Garden, and In Another Land, were extremely influential. Though controversy has continued to follow him, Norman has continued to tour and perform his songs throughout the world.


Born into a Roman Catholic family in Ohio,Larry Tomczak became locally famous as the drummer for the Lost Souls; a five-piece rock’n’roll band described by Richie Unterberger as a “Cleveland sensation”.[1].

He came to faith in Christ during the charismatic renewal of the 1970s, as described in his popular book, Clap Your Hands. His leadership of the popular non-denominational TAG (Take and Give) meeting in Washington DC, founded by local resident Lydia Little led to further prominence[2]. He was soon joined in leadership by fellow charismatic CJ Mahaney, (who was also raised in a Roman Catholic family). After a few years, TAG birthed an independent church, Gathering of Believers and after several name changes, became Covenant Life Church[3]. Covenant Life became a launchpad for the founding of People of Destiny International, a national (later international) church planting movement which subsequently shortened its name to PDI[4] then Sovereign Grace Ministries.

Jack Sparks and the Christian World Liberation Front – One of three founding fathers of the Christian World Liberation Front (CWLF) on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in 1969. A former statistics professor and Campus Crusade worker, Sparks felt the need to begin a campus outreach to left-wing student activists. In 1975 he and a number of other Campus Crusade members made the move into the Eastern Orthodox church. Most recently he has worked on the Orthodox Study Bible while continuing to teach at St. Athanasius Academy.

Linda Meissner and the Jesus People Army – Former staff worker with David Wilkerson’s Teen Challenge program, Meissner founded the Jesus People Army (JPA) in Seattle in response to having vision of “thousands of youths marching for Jesus.” After opening a number of outreaches in other areas in the Pacific Northwest basin, the JPA dissolved when she threw her support to the Children of God who took her with them to England. Disillusioned with her decision, she left the group and settled in Denmark.

Jim Palosaari and the Milwaukee Jesus People – Saved at a tent revival meeting in 1969, Palosaari and his wife Sue joined Linda Meissner’s Seattle outreach before venturing off to begin a similar outreach in the Midwest in 1971. After growing to approximately 200 members, the Milwaukee Jesus People split into four groups with Palosaari’s crew (The Jesus Family) settling in England. While there, the group staged the Lonesome Stone rock musical and founded the annual Greenbelt Music Festival. Returning to the United States, Palosaari established another community in Oregon called the Highway Missionary Society from which the rock group Servant originated. After HMS disbanded, Palosaari continued to work in the CCM business.

David Berg and The Children of God – After taking over responsibility of a Huntington Beach coffeehouse ministry, formerly operated by David Wilkerson’s Teen Challenge Organization, evangelist David Berg and his musically-inclined family by 1968 had recruited a modest number of hippie followers. Berg’s message centered on compelling listeners to make a radical break with society (the “systemites”) by making an “one-hundred percent commitment” to his “Teens for Christ” ministry. Recruits were assured that by this action they would be joining the one true remnant of Christian faith in the last days before the return of Christ.

But because they encouraged teenagers to make such a radical break with society, the group came under the scrutiny of local law enforcement who responded to a number of irate parents wondering where their children were. Charges of “brainwashing” and “kidnapping” ensued. Berg and his group were subsequently chased from their California location and on to the road. Despite these initial rumblings, however, in early 1971 the newly dubbed “Children of God” were still considered orthodox by most, although they were branded as the most radical (and perhaps eccentric) arm of the larger Jesus Movement. The favorable attitude changed soon after, as the charges from parents intensified and some of Berg’s internal writings laced with profanities escaped to the public. After stops in Arizona, Quebec (Canada), and a one in the Pacific Northwest where they took over the main operations of the Jesus People Army, Berg and the Children of God (COG) fled to Europe leaving behind a number of lawsuits and scandals.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s “The Family of Love” (as they renamed themselves) continued to evangelize with the belief that that the Second Coming of Christ would occur in 1993 as Berg had prophesied. Controversy still surrounds the group as many ex-members have brought forth accusations of sexual abuse and child molestation. Family spokespeople deny the charges. David Berg passed away in 1994 and his legacy is still promoted by his followers.

Scott Ross and Love Inn – Seeing the powerful but destructive force rock music could generate from his vantage as a former celebrity disc-jockey, Scott Ross desired to impact teenagers by combining the attractive elements of rock music with positive spiritual messages. In 1968 Ross approached CBN owner Pat Robertson with his vision from which the first Christian rock radio program, Tell It Like It Is, was born. In 1969 Ross opened a community called Love Inn in Freeville, New York where they established a Jesus paper (Free Love) and a record label (New Song) around the talents of guitarist Phil Keaggy. By 1979 Ross left the community to become more involved in the Discipleship movement. By the mid-1980s he returned to CBN where he continues to work.

Chuck Smith and Calvary Chapel – Frustrated by church growth contests and recruitment techniques, in 1965 Smith took over as pastor of a tiny congregation in Costa Mesa, California. While watching hippies gather at Huntington Beach he and his wife were moved to find some way to reach these lost youth with the gospel. In 1968 Smith recruited Lonnie Frisbee and John Higgins to start a drug rehabilitation and commune called The House of Miracles. Smith’s openness to the hippie culture sparked thousands of hippies to come to the church where he functioned as their father figure. Heavily influenced by premillennial interpretation of the Bible, Smith has become one of the leading figures of prophecy books and end-times publications selling thousands of copies of his various texts. Under his leadership, Calvary Chapel has spawned hundreds of similar churches and is cited as one of this half century’s church growth phenomenons.

 Maranatha! Music began as a non-profit outreach of Calvary Chapel in 1971. The Jesus People of the late 1960s and early 1970s began to write new hymns and worship songs with a folk-rock style. Maranatha! Music was founded at this time in order to publish and promote this new type of Christian music. Founder Chuck Smith eventually sold the label to his nephew Chuck Fromm.In the early 1970s Calvary Chapel was home to ten or more musical groups[1] that were representative of the Jesus people movement. Some of the early Maranatha! recording groups were Sweet Comfort Band, Love Song, Chuck Girard, Children of the Day, The Way, Mustard Seed Faith, Debby Kerner, and Daniel Amos. The label’s first release was a various artists compilation entitled The Everlastin’ Living Jesus Music Concert, in 1971.[ In the 1980s, Maranatha! launched Broken Records, a label focusing on modern rock, punk and alternative music. Also of note is their “Colours Collection”, a series of albums containing instrumental renditions of many of the songs found on their other albums.

The History of Rock Church International

In October of 1968, Rock Church was founded when John & Anne Gimenez were traveling from Pennsylvania to Florida and stopped in Virginia to appear on Pat Robertson’s “The 700 Club”. The prophetic word declared, “…I am sending you to a people you know not of…” inspiring them to trust God for clear direction.

John Gimenez felt compelled to seek an empty church building as a sign of God’s confirmation. Incredibly, a empty church building became available in Norfolk for revival services, which was soon overflowing with spiritually hungry people.

In 1971, the first Rock Church sanctuary was dedicated debt free! Soon thereafter, an educational building was built debt free, and in 1974, Rock Church Academy (Coastal Christian Academy) was opened! God continued to move and grow the ministry, opening doors to broadcast on national television, reaching millions of souls with the gospel. Then in 1977, the first round sanctuary was dedicated debt free. Twenty years later, the present 5,200-seat sanctuary was completed.

Today, the Rock Church has impacted the world with over 500 churches internationally. This apostolic ministry is committed to equip people from the “cradle to the grave” to fulfill the purpose of God.

Ted Wise and the House of Acts Community – Converted in 1966 Wise is remembered as the first street Christian converts of the ensuing Jesus People Movement. In 1967 he and his wife Liz (and three other couples) opened The Living Room mission in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. Although in operation for only 18 months, the staffers suggested they talked with several thousand people. Wise and his group also came to live in community, taking the Acts’ account of the early Christians as a literal guide. The resultant House of Acts community, the first Jesus commune of the movement, stood as a model for other similar communities that sprung up all across the continent. After this, Wise was recruited by Ray Stedman of Peninsula Bible Church (PBC) to work with drug addicts and open rehabilitation clinics. He remains affiliated to PBC to the present. (Read a recent interview with Ted)

Jim Durkin and Lighthouse Ranch – In the summer of 1970 while Jim Durkin was experiencing dissatisfaction with his ministry, he was approached by several Jesus People looking to begin an evangelistic ministry to the hippies. Though initially hesitant, Durkin allowed the young group access to one of his apartment complexes helping them establish a coffeehouse outreach program. As the ministry blossomed they looked to him for leadership. He acquired an abandoned coast guard station eleven miles outside of Eureka, California allowing the young Christians to use this as their new home.

Gospel Outreach Lighthouse Ranch, Table Bluff Road in Loleta, CA – Dubbed the Lighthouse Ranch, by 1972 the group had grown to almost 300 active members. Under Durkin’s oversight the group began to send out church planting teams all over the world eventually calling their growing organization Gospel Outreach. Throughout the 1970s and 80s, Gospel Outreach continued to send out missionary teams including successful campaigns in Mendocino (California), Germany, Nicaragua, and Hawaii. With 100 affiliated churches worldwide the Gospel Outreach network is one of three denominational legacies of the Jesus People Movement.

Victor Paul Wierwille – A graduate of Princeton Theological Seminary and ordained in the United Church of Christ. Believing that much of the Christian was in error, in 1955 Wierwille founded The Way to educate young men and women in the “correct way of biblical education.” In 1968 Wierwille contacted and recruited two members of the first street Christian community in the Haight Ashbury, asking them to head up Way International training centers in California and New York. The Way International raised the ire of other Christian groups, labelled a “cult” because of their antitrinitarian views. One of the largest of all the extremist groups of the Jesus People movement, by the mid-1970s the organization boasted over 20,000 active members. Wierwille died in 1986 leaving The Way International in a state of disarray having to deal with financial mismanagement, accusations that he had plagiarized some of his writings, and sexual immorality.

Greg Laurie – In 1970 Greg Laurie was profoundly influenced by an encounter with hippie evangelist Lonnie Frisbee who was preaching on the lawn of Laurie’s Newport Harbor High School. After this experience, Laurie was invited back to Calvary Chapel where in 1972 he was offered oversight over a congregation that had been nurtured by Frisbee at All Saints Episcopal Church in Riverside, California. Under Laurie’s leadership the Harvest Christian Fellowship has blossomed into one of the flagships of the Calvary Chapel denomination. In 1990 Smith took his protege and began billing Laurie as the featured speaker for what has become the annual Harvest Crusade meetings. He is noted by some as being the “evangelist of the MTV generation.”

Duane Pederson and the Hollywood Free Paper – Originally a ventriloquist from Minnesota, Pederson moved to California and founded what became the most widely distributed underground Jesus newspaper of the movement called the Hollywood Free Paper. Used as a tool of evangelistic communication the paper’s editors boasted that their largest circulated copy had a printing of 500,000 copies. Pederson wrote a number of books in the early 1970s while serving as pastor of a California congregation. In the mid-1980s he tried unsuccessfully to resurrect the Hollywood Free Paper and eventually followed former Jesus People associate Jack Sparks into the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Hal Lindsey – In 1970 Lindsey left Campus Crusade to begin the Jesus Christ Light and Power Company, a youth oriented ministry on the Los Angeles campus of the University of California (UCLA). Previous to this he had begun to compile a number of eschatologically based sermons publishing them under the title The Late Great Planet Earth later that year. The book became an overnight best seller hitting on a raw nerve of excitement concerning the close proximation of the second coming of Christ. With one eye on the Bible and one towards the daily news, Lindsey’s book enchanted Christians into a wave of expectational end-times frenzy. Launched by the success of his first book, Lindsey was commissioned to begin writing others. In 1972 he published Satan Is Alive and Well on Planet Earth, a book based on the theme of worldwide satanic conspiracies. Lindsey has continued to be one of the leading experts of Biblical prophecy traveling throughout the world and continuing to be a popular conference speaker.

Bethel Tabernacle – One of the obscure hippie churches to gain notoriety during the intense media frenzy in 1971. Drawn into the movement when Pastor Lyle Steenis recruited ex-drug addict Breck Stevens to be the church’s evangelistic liaison to the counterculture. Although the church claimed that over 100,000 people passed through their doors, the congregation never grew to more than several hundred. After Steenis died in a plane crash in 1972, Stevens took over control of the church despite the protestations of Steenis’ widow who may have realized that the young man lacked the necessary maturity. Though he led the church for another 14 years, Stevens committed suicide in 1986.

Toronto Catacombs – In 1968 Gord Morris and Don Rossiter desired to begin a Christian club on the campus of their Toronto high school. After approaching their music teacher who was also a Christian, they formed the Catacomb Club. By 1971 they had grown into a group of 850 and began meeting in St. Paul’s Anglican Church where they held a Thursday night ‘Praise and Worship Celebration’ that at its peak attracted 2,500 enthusiastic teenagers. The core group eventually spawned a church that lasted into the late 1980s.

Explo ’72 – Billed as the “Spiritual Woodstock” or “Godstock,” the Campus Crusade sponsored event featured a number of evangelical leaders and Jesus Music performers in a week long campaign (May 12-17). Featured artists were Love Song, Larry Norman, Randy Matthews, Children of the Day, Johnny Cash, and Kris Kristofferson. The week was closed with a sermon by Billy Graham who had recently penned a book affirming his allegiance with “The Jesus Generation.”

John Higgins and the Shiloh Youth Revival Centers Organization – Saved in 1966 after reading the Bible in an effort to disprove it, the former New Yorker started attending the fledgling Calvary Chapel in Costa Mesa. Along with Lonnie and Connie Frisbee, John and his wife Jackie were asked to be the elders of the very first House of Miracles communal home in 1968. Under Higgins’ leadership a number of other communities opened throughout the southwestern United States all subsequently dubbed The House of Miracles. While scouting some property up in Oregon, Higgins received a vision to move their various ministries north. Naming this first Oregon communal location ‘Shiloh’ after an Old Testament prophetic passage, the Shiloh Youth Revival Centers Organization (SYRCO) began planting other communal houses throughout the Pacific Northwest. It is estimated that from 1968 to 1978 the SYRCO established 178 locations although no more than 50 houses were in operation at one time. After charges of financial mismanagement and authoritarianism were brought up against Higgins in 1978, he was asked to leave the ministry. The SYRCO battled to stay afloat for the next several years but finally sold their remaining properties and closed operations in 1988. John Higgins moved to Arizona and is presently the pastor of a Calvary Chapel affiliate.

Kent Philpott – As a young pastor and student at Golden Gate Baptist Seminary in 1967, Philpott felt compelled to begin evangelizing in the Haight Ashbury after hearing Scott McKenzie’s song “San Francisco.” Along with his wife he opened a number of communal houses and was a member of a Baptist organization called Evangelical Concerns which funded some of the street Christian activities in the area. Philpott is presently a pastor in the San Francisco Bay area.

David Hoyt – A member of the Krishna temple when first approached by evangelist Kent Philpott in the Haight Ashbury, Hoyt had a powerful conversion experience and worked towards opening numerous Christian communes. In 1970 he moved to Atlanta and opened Upper Streams and the House of Judah before being the first Jesus People leader to align with the Children of God. Hoyt left the COG after their exodus to Europe. While in England he teamed up with former Milwaukee Jesus People leader Jim Palosaari and his crew. Hoyt is currently writing a book about his experiences.

Don Williams and the Salt Company Coffeehouse – Having just obtained his doctorate from Columbia University, Williams became the youth pastor of Hollywood First Presbyterian Church. Feeling a “Call to the Streets” (the title of a book he wrote on his experiences in the JPM), he began a coffeehouse ministry called the Salt Company where many notable Jesus Musicians played. The church also sponsored a Jesus paper and a couple of communal homes for new converts. Wrote a book on his experiences called “Call to the Streets.” After the JPM he taught at Claremont MacKenna College before becoming involved in the Vineyard movement.

Connie Frisbee – While living at a number of hippie communities, Connie became acquainted with and eventually married Lonnie Frisbee. In 1968 they became the fifth couple to live at the House of Acts community in Novato, California where she helped out with the daily routines of making soup and preparing the storefront mission for the regular stream of guests. Though the two were divorced in 1973, Connie remarried and is presently living in Auburn where she shares her experiences with troubled youth.

Sandi Heefner, Judy Doop, Liz Wise, and Sandy Sands – The wives of the four men who organized and ran The Living Room storefront mission in the Haight Ashbury and The House of Acts (the first countercultural Christian community of the revival). Although Ted Wise usually gets credit for being the first convert of the Jesus People Movement, it was Liz’s going back to church which really began the desire to search the Bible. Like many unsung participants of the Jesus People Movement, these four women deserve credit for doing the behind the scenes work at The Living Room and House of Acts.

Kathryn Kuhlman – A charismatic healing evangelist who briefly embraced the Jesus People as they became front page news. Kuhlman befriended a number of converted hippies from Calvary Chapel and was convinced to do a number of her “I Believe in Miracles” television shows with them as the main guests.

Edward E. Plowman – As editor of Christianity Today, Plowman was one of the first to report on the emerging ‘street Christians,’ and follow through with many subsequent stories and editorials on the Jesus People as they progressed into a movement.

Glenn Kaiser – Was a young hippie blues guitarist in Milwaukee when he made contact and subsequently joined a community of Jesus People while they were holding revival meetings in the early 1970s. Was the focal musician in one of the community’s two rock bands (named Charity) which eventually was renamed Resurrection Band. After two custom cassette projects the band released their first album entitled Awaiting Your Reply in 1978. Beyond his duties as lead guitarist, songwriter, and vocalist for the band, Kaiser has been an uncompromising voice within the CCM industry and larger evangelical movement. Still serves as a pastor to the Jesus People USA community in downtown Chicago, Illinois where the Jesus People Movement continues.

Martin Meyer ‘Moishe’ Rosen – While in California as the leader of a missionary organization to Jewish people, Rosen befriended a number of Jewish hippie converts in the late 1960s. He subsequently founded the Jews for Jesus organization which gained a lot of media attention in the early 1970s for their confrontational style of evangelism.

David Rose – Young charismatic hippie who converted and was later influenced by Jack Sparks of the Christian World Liberation Front. Compelled by a vision to open a mission to teenagers in the midwest, he returned to Kansas and opened the House of Agape. By the early 1970s their efforts had spawned a well attended church out of which came the music of Paul Clark and The Hallelujah Joy Band. After joining a mission team to the 1972 Olympics in Munich, Rose ventured to Israel where he functioned as the church’s overseas missionary for a number of years. Rose presently runs a successful Hollywood video production company.

Mario Murillo – Pastor who directed Resurrection City, a Pentecostal styled ministry and outreach geared towards presenting the gospel to radical activist leaders at the University of California at Berkeley campus. His ministry continues today and he also has a popular bible study on Christian TV.